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**Quantitative genetics**- Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).Both branches use the frequencies of different alleles of a gene in breeding populations (gamodemes), and combine them with concepts from simple Mendelian inheritance to analyze inheritance patterns across generations ...
**Qualitative variation**- An index of qualitative variation (IQV) is a measure of statistical dispersion in nominal distributions. There are a variety of these, but they have been relatively little-studied in the statistics literature. The simplest is the variation ratio, while more complex indices include the information entropy.There are several types of indexes used for the analysis of nominal data. Several are standard statistics that are used elsewhere - range, standard deviation, variance, mean deviation, coeffi...
**Quasiregular polyhedron**- In geometry, a quasiregular polyhedron is a semiregular polyhedron that has exactly two kinds of regular faces, which alternate around each vertex. They are edge-transitive and hence a step closer to regular polyhedra than the semiregular which are merely vertex-transitive.There are only two convex quasiregular polyhedra, the cuboctahedron and the icosidodecahedron. Their names, given by Kepler, come from recognizing their faces contain all the faces of the dual-pair cube and octahedron, in t...
**Quantum LC circuit**- An LC circuit can be quantized using the same methods as for the quantum harmonic oscillator. An LC circuit is a variety of resonant circuit, and consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C. When connected together, an electric current can alternate between them at the circuit's resonant frequency:where L is the inductance in henries, and C is the capacitance in farads. The angular frequency ω {\displaystyle \omega \,} has ...
**Quadratic reciprocity**- In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. There are a number of equivalent statements of the theorem. One version of the law states that for p and q odd prime numbers,wheredenotes the Legendre symbol.This law, combined with the properties of the Legendre symbol, means that any Legendre symbol can be calculated. This makes it possible to determine, for any quadr...
**Quilmes FC**- Quilmes FC from Sabah enters a team in Malaysian futsal competitions in 2013. The team moved their home ground to Kuala Lumpur at Commercial Center Futsal Court, Sentul due to travelling factor because all the League fixtures are held at KSL Sport Puchong Utama Futsal Centre & KSL Sports Centre Sri Gombak in Selangor.Quilmes is a football club which is active in Sabah since 1999. The club is more focused in futsal and football. Since actively involved in the game of futsal, Quilmes has wo...
**Queen's Club Championships**- The Queen's Club Championships is an annual tournament for male tennis players, held on grass courts at the Queen's Club in West Kensington, London. The event is part of the ATP World Tour 500 series on the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Tour. It is currently promoted as the Aegon Championships for sponsorship reasons. For many years previously it was known as the Stella Artois Championships.Queen's is one of the most prestigious grass court tournaments, as well as one of the oldes...
**Quaternions and spatial rotation**- Unit quaternions, also known as versors, provide a convenient mathematical notation for representing orientations and rotations of objects in three dimensions. Compared to Euler angles they are simpler to compose and avoid the problem of gimbal lock. Compared to rotation matrices they are more numerically stable and may be more efficient. Quaternions have applications in computer graphics, computer vision, robotics, navigation, molecular dynamics, flight dynamics, orbital mechanics of satelli...
**Queen Victoria**- Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe...
**Quaternion**- In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers. They were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in three-dimensional space. A feature of quaternions is that multiplication of two quaternions is noncommutative. Hamilton defined a quaternion as the quotient of two directed lines in a three-dimensional space or equivalently as the quotient of two vectors.Quaternions are generally represented in the for...
**QR decomposition**- In linear algebra, a QR decomposition (also called a QR factorization) of a matrix is a decomposition of a matrix A into a product A = QR of an orthogonal matrix Q and an upper triangular matrix R. QR decomposition is often used to solve the linear least squares problem, and is the basis for a particular eigenvalue algorithm, the QR algorithm.Any real square matrix A may be decomposed aswhere Q is an orthogonal matrix (its columns are orthogonal unit vectors meaning QQ = I) and...
**Quantization of the electromagnetic field**- After quantization of the electromagnetic field, the EM (electromagnetic) field consists of discrete energy parcels, photons. Photons are massless particles of definite energy, definite momentum, and definite spin.In order to explain the photoelectric effect, Einstein assumed heuristically in 1905 that an electromagnetic field consists of parcels of energy hν, where h is Planck's constant and ν is the wave frequency. In 1927 Paul A. M. Dirac was able to weave the photon concept into the fabri...
**Qing dynasty**- Tael (liǎng)The Qing dynasty (Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: Qīng Cháo; Wade–Giles: Ch'ing Ch'ao; officially the Great Qing (大清; Dà Qīng), also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese st...
**Quantum field theory**- In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics. A QFT treats particles as excited states of the underlying physical field, so these are called field quanta.In quantum field theory, quantum mechanical interactions between particles are described by interaction terms between the corresponding underlying quantum fields. These intera...
**Q-School 2016/17 – Event 1**- Q-School 2016 – Event 1 was the first of two qualifying tournaments for the 2016/17 snooker season. It took place from 11 to 16 May 2016 at Meadowside Centre in Burton-upon-Trent, England.The four qualifying spots were won by Fang Xiongman, Christopher Keogan, Cao Yupeng and Chen Zhe who beat Daniel Womersley, Marc Davis, Joe Roberts and David Lilley respectively in the finals of their draw.The tournament consisted of players being randomly assigned to four sections. Each section plays in the...
**Q-School 2016/17 – Event 2**- Q-School 2016 – Event 2 was the second of two qualifying tournaments for the 2016/17 snooker season. It took place from 17 to 22 May 2016 at Meadowside Centre in Burton-upon-Trent, England.The four qualifying spots were won by Michael Georgiou, John Astley, David John and Alex Borg who beat Craig Steadman, Peter Lines, Zak Surety and Alexander Ursenbacher respectively in the finals of their draw, whereas Craig Steadman, Jamie Barrett, Ian Preece and Adam Duffy claimed the last four qualifying...
**Quartic function**- In algebra, a quartic function is a function of the formwhere a is nonzero, which is defined by a polynomial of degree four, called quartic polynomial.Sometimes the term biquadratic is used instead of quartic, but, usually, biquadratic function refers to a quadratic function of a square (or, equivalently, to the function defined by a quartic polynomial without terms of odd degree), having the formA quartic equation, or equation of the fourth degree, is an equation that equates a quartic polyn...
**Quantization (signal processing)**- Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping a large set of input values to a (countable) smaller set. Rounding and truncation are typical examples of quantization processes. Quantization is involved to some degree in nearly all digital signal processing, as the process of representing a signal in digital form ordinarily involves rounding. Quantization also forms the core of essentially all lossy compression algorithms. The difference between an input ...
**Q-School 2015/16 - Event 2**- Q-School 2015 – Event 2 was the second of two qualifying tournaments for the 2015/16 snooker season that took place from 20 to 25 May 2015 at Meadowside Centre in Burton-upon-Trent, England.The four qualifying spots were won by Jason Weston, Gareth Allen, Duane Jones and Paul Davison who beat Kuldesh Johal, Alex Taubman, Zhao Xintong and Luke Simmonds respectively in the finals of their draw. Jason Weston and Paul Davison being the only winners to have previously held a tour card.The tourname...
**Quebec**- Quebec (pronounced /kwᵻˈbɛk/ or /kəˈbɛk/; French: Québec [kebɛk] ( listen)) is the second-most populous province in Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language.Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario, James Bay, and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait an...
**Q-School 2015/16 - Event 1**- Q-School 2015 – Event 1 was the first of two qualifying tournaments for the 2015/16 snooker season that took place from 14 to 19 May 2015 at Meadowside Centre in Burton-upon-Trent, England.The four qualifying spots were won by Sydney Wilson, Daniel Wells, Eden Sharav and Rhys Clark who beat Chen Zhe, Alexander Ursenbacher, Adam Duffy and Leo Fernandez respectively in the finals of their draw. Daniel Wells being the only winner to have previously held a tour card.The tournament consisted of 16...
**Quadratic Jordan algebra**- In mathematics, quadratic Jordan algebras are a generalization of Jordan algebras introduced by Kevin McCrimmon (1966). The fundamental identities of the quadratic representation of a linear Jordan algebra are used as axioms to define a quadratic Jordan algebra over a field of arbitrary characteristic. There is a uniform description of finite-dimensional simple quadratic Jordan algebras, independent of characteristic. If 2 is invertible in the field of coefficients, the theory of quadrat...
**Quantum harmonic oscillator**- The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator. Because an arbitrary potential can usually be approximated as a harmonic potential at the vicinity of a stable equilibrium point, it is one of the most important model systems in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, it is one of the few quantum-mechanical systems for which an exact, analytical solution is known.The Hamiltonian of the particle is:where m is the particle's mass, ω is the angular fr...
**QuakeCon**- QuakeCon is a yearly convention held by ZeniMax Media to celebrate and promote the major franchises of id Software and other studios owned by ZeniMax. It includes a large, paid, bring-your-own-computer (BYOC) computer gaming event with a competitive tournament held every year in Dallas, Texas, USA. The event, which is named after id Software's game Quake, sees thousands of gamers from all over the world attend every year to celebrate the company's gaming dynasty.The event is highly dependent ...
**Quantum mechanical scattering of photon and nucleus**- In pair production, a photon creates an electron positron pair. In the process of photons scattering in air (e.g. in lightning discharges), the most important interaction is the scattering of photons at the nuclei of atoms or molecules. The full quantum mechanical process of pair production can be described by the quadruply differential cross section given here: d 4 σ = Z 2 α fine 3 c 2 ( 2 π ) 2 ...
**Quantum tomography**- Quantum tomography or quantum state tomography is the process of reconstructing the quantum state (density matrix) for a source of quantum systems by measurements on the systems coming from the source. The source may be any device or system which prepares quantum states either consistently into quantum pure states or otherwise into general mixed states. To be able to uniquely identify the state, the measurements must be tomographically complete. That is, the measured operators must form an op...
**Quebec general election, 2012**- Jean CharestQuebec Liberal PartyPauline MaroisParti QuébécoisThe Quebec general election of 2012 took place in the Canadian province of Quebec on September 4, 2012. Lieutenant Governor Pierre Duchesne dissolved the National Assembly on August 1, 2012, following Premier Jean Charest's request. The Parti Québécois were elected to a minority government, with Pauline Marois becoming the first woman to be Premier of Quebec. The Quebec Liberal Party took second place, with Premier Jean Charest losi...
**Quasiprobability distribution**- A quasiprobability distribution is a mathematical object similar to a probability distribution but which relaxes some of Kolmogorov's axioms of probability theory. Although quasiprobabilities share several of general features with ordinary probabilities, such as, crucially, the ability to yield expectation values with respect to the weights of the distribution, they all violate the third probability axiom, because regions integrated under them do not represent probabilities of mutually exclus...
**Quantum entanglement**- Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance – instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.Measurements of physical properties such as position, momentum, spin, and polarization, performed on entangled particles are found to be appropriate...
**Quaternary extinction event**- The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly larger, especially megafaunal, species, many of which occurred during the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene epoch. However, this extinction wave did not stop at the end of the Pleistocene, but continued, especially on isolated islands, in human-caused extinctions, although there is debate as to whether these should be considered separate events or part of the same event. Among the main causes hypothesized by pal...
**Quantum group**- In mathematics and theoretical physics, the term quantum group denotes various kinds of noncommutative algebras with additional structure. In general, a quantum group is some kind of Hopf algebra. There is no single, all-encompassing definition, but instead a family of broadly similar objects.The term "quantum group" first appeared in the theory of quantum integrable systems, which was then formalized by Vladimir Drinfeld and Michio Jimbo as a particular class of Hopf algebra. The same term i...
**Quimper Cathedral**- View of the cathedralAnother view of the cathedralView of the cathedral from one of the approach roadsA view of the la cathédrale Saint-Tugdual in Tréguier. Note the north flank of the choir, the spire of the "Tour des Cloches", the "Sanctus" and "Hastings" towers and the west gallery of the cloistersQuimper Cathedral, properly the Cathedral of Saint Corentin of Quimper (French: Cathédrale Saint-Corentin de Quimper), is a Roman Catholic cathedral and national monument of Brittany in France. I...
**Queensland Residents rugby league team**- The Queensland Residents rugby league team is a representative rugby league team consisting of players who compete in the Intrust Super Cup (Queensland Cup) competition. They currently play an annual fixture against NSW Cup Representative Team, often as a curtain raiser to a State of Origin game.The team is administered by the Queensland Rugby League and usually plays its home matches at Suncorp Stadium. In 2015, they played a home fixture at Brisbane's Langlands Park (now known as Suzuki Sta...
**Quantum mechanics**- Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons. Systems such as these which obey quantum mechanics can be in a quantum superposition of different states, unlike in classical physics.Quantum mechanics gradually arose from Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem (reported 1859) and Albert Einstein's 1905 paper w...
**Quebec general election, 2014**- Pauline MaroisParti QuébécoisPhilippe CouillardLiberalThe 41st Quebec general election was held on April 7, 2014 to elect members to the National Assembly of Quebec.The Quebec Liberal Party under Philippe Couillard won a majority government of 70 seats, while the incumbent Parti Québécois finished second with 30 seats, becoming the first single-term government since Jean-Jacques Bertrand's Union Nationale government was defeated in 1970. It marked the lowest seat total for the Parti Québécois...
**Qatar national football team**- The Qatar national football team is the national team of Qatar and is overseen by the Qatar Football Association. The team has appeared in nine Asian Cup tournaments and Qatar also hosted the 2011 Asian Cup. They play their home games at Khalifa International Stadium and Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium. The latter is the home stadium for the team.Football was brought to Qatar during a time which coincided with initial discovery of oil reserves in Dukhan in 1940. By 1948, expatriate oil workers playe...
**Queens**- Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City. It is geographically adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the southwestern end of Long Island, and to Nassau County further east on Long Island; in addition, Queens shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Coterminous with Queens County since 1899, the borough of Queens is the second-largest in population (after Brooklyn), with a census-estimated 2,339,150 residents in 2015, approx...
**Quantum superposition**- Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states. Mathematically, it refers to a property of solutions to the Schrödinger equation; since the Schrödinger equation is linear, any linear combinat...
**Quebec municipal elections, 2009**- Municipal elections took place throughout Quebec, Canada, on November 1, 2009, to replace mayors and councillors.Following media reports, the Directeur général des élections du Québec announced an investigation as to whether construction entrepreneur Lino Zambito attempted to persuade two opposition councillors to allow the incumbent mayor Sylvie Saint-Jean to be reelected unopposed.It was reported that outgoing mayor Ed Janiszewski had attempted to persuade his opponent Shameem Siddiqui not ...
**Quadric (projective geometry)**- In projective geometry, a quadric is the set of points of a projective space where a certain quadratic form on the homogeneous coordinates becomes zero. We shall restrict ourself to the case of finite-dimensional projective spaces.Let K {\displaystyle K} be a field and V ( K ) {\displaystyle {\mathcal {V}}(K)} a vector space over K {\displaystyle K} . A mapping ρ {\displaystyle \rho } from V ( K ) {\displaystyle {\mathcal {V}}(K)} to K {\...
**Quakers**- Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements generally known as the Religious Society of Friends. Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "that of God in every person," and therefore they profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Qu...
**Quebec general election, 2008**- Jean CharestQuebec Liberal PartyThe Quebec general election of 2008 was held in the Canadian province of Quebec on December 8, 2008. Jean Charest was elected for his third mandate and formed a majority government. This was the first time since the 1950s (when the Union Nationale of Maurice Duplessis won four consecutive elections) that a party or leader was elected to a third consecutive mandate, and the first time for the Liberals since the 1930s, when Louis-Alexandre Taschereau was premier....
**Quadratic equation**- In elementary algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the formwhere x represents an unknown, and a, b, and c represent known numbers such that a is not equal to 0. If a = 0, then the equation is linear, not quadratic. The numbers a, b, and c are the coefficients of the equation, and may be distinguished by calling them, respectively, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant or free term.Because the quadratic equati...
**Qarabağ FK**- Qarabağ Futbol Klubu, commonly known as Qarabağ [ɡɑɾɑbɑʁ], is an Azerbaijani football club from Agdam, but based in Baku since 1993 due to the Nagorno-Karabakh war, playing in the Azerbaijan Premier League.Formed in 1951, Qarabağ were founding members of the Azerbaijan Premier League in 1992. A season later they won their first league championship, becoming the first non-Baku based club to win the Azerbaijan Premier League title. Qarabağ is one of the two teams in Azerbaijan, along with Neftç...
**Quebec general election, 2007**- Jean CharestLiberalThe Quebec general election of 2007 was held in the Canadian province of Quebec on March 26, 2007 to elect members of the 38th National Assembly of Quebec. The Quebec Liberal Party led by Jean Charest managed to win a plurality of seats, but were reduced to a minority government, Quebec's first in 129 years, since the 1878 general election. The Action démocratique du Québec, in a major breakthrough, became the official opposition. The Parti Québécois was relegated to third-...
**Quantum stochastic calculus**- Quantum stochastic calculus is a generalization of stochastic calculus to noncommuting variables. The tools provided by quantum stochastic calculus are of great use for modeling the random evolution of systems undergoing measurement, as in quantum trajectories. Just as the Lindblad master equation provides a quantum generalization to the Fokker-Planck equation, quantum stochastic calculus allows for the derivation of quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDE) that are analogous to class...
**Quintic function**- In algebra, a quintic function is a function of the formwhere a, b, c, d, e and f are members of a field, typically the rational numbers, the real numbers or the complex numbers, and a is nonzero. In other words, a quintic function is defined by a polynomial of degree five.If a is zero but one of the coefficients b, c, d, or e is non-zero, the function is classified as either a quartic function, cubic function, quadratic function or linear function.Because they have an odd degree, normal quin...
**Querétaro**- Guillermo Tamborrel Eduardo Nava Querétaro (Spanish pronunciation: [keˈɾetaɾo]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro de Arteaga (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Querétaro de Arteaga), is one of 31 states that, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities. Its capital city is Santiago de Querétaro.It is located in North-Central Mexico, in a region known as Bajío. It is bordered by the states of San Luis Pot...
**Quadrilateral**- In Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four edges (or sides) and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the term quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle, and sometimes tetragon for consistency with pentagon (5-sided), hexagon (6-sided) and so on.The origin of the word "quadrilateral" is the two Latin words quadri, a variant of four, and latus, meaning "side".Quadrilaterals are simple (not self-intersecting) or complex (self-intersecting), also called crossed. Simple...
**Qianlong Emperor**- The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. Born Aisin Gioro Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796. On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor – a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor. Despite his retirement, how...

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