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Texas's 1st congressional district

Texas's 1st congressional districtDescription : Texas's First congressional district in the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 Census, the First District represents 651,619 people. It consists largely of three small East Texas metropolitan areas—Lufkin-Nacogdoches, in the south, Longview-Marshall, and Tyler.The First District once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the distri... Page:t190

Texas's 1st congressional district
Texas's 1st congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Texas's 1st congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Current RepresentativeLouie Gohmert (R–Tyler)
Population (2000)651,619
Median income$33,461
Ethnicity74.4% White, 18.4% Black, 0.4% Asian, 9.3% Hispanic, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% other
Cook PVIR+24 (2012)

Texas's First congressional district in the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 Census, the First District represents 651,619 people. It consists largely of three small East Texas metropolitan areas—Lufkin-Nacogdoches, in the south, Longview-Marshall, and Tyler.

The First District once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the district got smaller until it only encompassed about half of Northeast Texas.

For most of its history, the district was based in Texarkana. However, in a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Texarkana was drawn out of the district and moved to the neighboring Fourth congressional district. Lufkin, Tyler and Longview were added in its place.

The district was predominantly rural for much of its history, and thus was far friendlier to electing Democrats to Congress even as most of Texas swung toward the Republicans. The district's four-term Democratic incumbent, Max Sandlin, was a particularly severe critic of the DeLay-led redistricting effort, claiming that lumping rural areas with urban ones stifled the voice of rural voters. Indeed, the 2003 redistricting made the district more urban and Republican, especially with the addition of the Republican strongholds of Tyler and Longview. Sandlin was heavily defeated in November 2004 by Republican Louie Gohmert, a longtime judge in the Tyler area. Gohmert is the first Republican to represent the district since Reconstruction. Proving just how Republican the reconfigured 1st was, Gohmert has been reelected five times with virtually no opposition.

The district's best-known congressman, Wright Patman, represented the district for 47 years — the second-longest tenure of anyone in Congress from Texas. He was an early supporter of the New Deal, and later chaired the House Banking Committee for 12 years.

2012 redistricting

The 2012 redistricting process changed the district's northern section. All of Marion County, Cass County, and the majority of Upshur County were removed from the district. To compensate this loss, the eastern half of Wood County was added.

Recent election results

Election results from recent races

U.S. Representative

2004 election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanLouie Gohmert157,06861.5Increase17.9
DemocraticMax Sandlin96,28137.7Decrease18.7
LibertarianDean Tucker2,1580.8
Majority60,78723.8
Turnout255,507
Republican gain from DemocraticSwing
2006 election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanLouie Gohmert104,09968Increase6.5
DemocraticRoger L. Owen46,30330.2Decrease7.5
LibertarianDonald Perkison2,6681.7Decrease0.9
Majority57,79637.8
Turnout153,070Decrease40.1
Republican holdSwing
2008 election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanLouie Gohmert189,01287.6Increase19.6
IndependentRoger L. Owen26,81412.4
Majority162,19875.2
Turnout215,826Increase41.0
Republican holdSwing
2010 election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanLouie Gohmert129,39889.7Increase2.1
LibertarianCharles F. Parkes, III14,81110.3
Majority114,58779.6
Turnout144,209Decrease33.2
Republican holdSwing
2012 election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanLouie Gohmert178,32271.4Decrease18.3
DemocraticShirley J. McKellar67,22226.9Increase26.9
LibertarianClark Patterson4,1141.6%Decrease8.7
Majority111,10044.5
Turnout249,658Increase73.1
Republican holdSwing

President

YearWinner %Margin (%)
2000George W. Bush6832
2004George W. Bush6930
2008John McCain6930
2012Mitt Romney7244

Demographics

  • Population: 651,619 (2000 Census)
  • Under 18: 26.2%
  • Over 65: 14.1%
  • Married 58.7%
  • Non-Hispanic White: 71%
  • Black: 18%
  • Hispanic: 9%
  • Asian: 1%
  • Foreign born: 5.3%
  • Language other than English: 9.8%
  • Median household income: $33,461
  • Owner occupied housing: 71.9%
  • Income above $200K: 1.4%

List of representatives

RepresentativePartyYearsElectoral historyCounties represented
District createdDecember 29, 1845
VacantDecember 29, 1845 –
March 30, 1846
 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
No image.svg David S. KaufmanDemocraticMarch 30, 1846 –
January 31, 1851
First elected in 1846

Died
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
VacantJanuary 31, 1851 –
March 4, 1851
 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
No image.svg Richardson A. ScurryDemocraticMarch 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
Elected in 1850

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
No image.svg George W. SmythDemocraticMarch 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
Elected in 1852

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
No image.svg Lemuel D. EvansAmerican
(Know-Nothing)
March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
Elected in 1854

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
JHRegan.jpg John H. ReaganDemocraticMarch 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1861
First elected in 1856

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
American Civil War/Reconstruction
George Washington Whitmore (Texas Congressman).jpg George W. WhitmoreRepublicanMarch 30, 1870 –
March 3, 1871
Elected in 1870

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
William S. Herndon (Texas Congressman).jpg William S. HerndonDemocraticMarch 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1875
First elected in 1870

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
JHRegan.jpg John H. ReaganDemocraticMarch 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1883
Redistricted to the 2nd district

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
CharlesStewartTX.jpg Charles StewartDemocraticMarch 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1893
First elected in 1882

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Joseph Chappell Hutcheson, Sr. (Texas Congressman).jpg Joseph C. HutchesonDemocraticMarch 4, 1893 –
March 3, 1897
First elected in 1892

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Thomas H. Ball (Texas Congressman).jpg Thomas H. BallDemocraticMarch 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1903
First elected in 1896

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Sheppard morris.jpg Morris SheppardDemocraticMarch 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1913
Redistricted from the 4th district

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
HoraceWorthVaughan.jpg Horace W. VaughanDemocraticMarch 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1915
Elected in 1912

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Eugene Black.jpeg Eugene BlackDemocraticMarch 4, 1915 –
March 3, 1929
First elected in 1914

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
John William Wright Patman.jpg Wright PatmanDemocraticMarch 4, 1929 –
January 3, 1967
First elected in 1928

Died
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
January 3, 1959 –
January 3, 1967
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison
January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1969
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Shelby
January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1973
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby
January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1975
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine
January 3, 1975 –
March 7, 1976
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine, southeastern Hunt, eastern Rains
VacantMarch 7, 1976 –
June 19, 1976
 
Sam B. Hall, Jr.jpg Sam B. HallDemocraticJune 19, 1976 –
January 3, 1983
First elected to finish Patman's term

Resigned to become U.S. District Judge
January 3, 1983 –
May 27, 1985
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Henderson, San Augustine, northern Hunt
VacantMay 27, 1985 –
August 3, 1985
 
Jim Chapman.jpg Jim ChapmanDemocraticAugust 3, 1985 –
January 3, 1993
First elected to finish Hall's term
Re-elected in 1986
Re-elected in 1988
Re-elected in 1990
January 3, 1993 –
January 3, 1997
Re-elected in 1992
Re-elected in 1994
Retired to run for U.S. Senate
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, eastern Hunt, southeastern Gregg, parts of Nacogdoches
Msandlinpic.png Max SandlinDemocraticJanuary 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2003
First elected in 1996
Re-elected in 1998
Re-elected in 2000
January 3, 2003 –
January 3, 2005
Re-elected in 2002
Lost re-election
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, most of Hunt, northern Nacogdoches
Louie Gohmert official congressional photo.jpg Louie GohmertRepublicanJanuary 3, 2005 –
January 3, 2013
First elected in 2004
Re-elected in 2006
Re-elected in 2008
Re-elected in 2010
Upshur, Marion, Harrison, Gregg, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Nacogdoches, Shelby, San Augustine, Sabine, Angelina, southeastern Cass
January 3, 2013 –
Present
Re-elected in 2012
Re-elected in 2014
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Historical district boundaries

2007 - 2013
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