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Taiwan Province

Taiwan ProvinceDescription : Taiwan Province (Chinese: 臺灣省; pinyin: Táiwān Shěng) is one of the two administrative divisions of the Republic of China (ROC) that are officially referred to as "provinces". The province covers approximately 69% of the actual-controlled territory of the ROC, with around 31% of the total population.Geographically it covers the majority of the island of Taiwan as well as almost all of its surrounding islands, the largest of which are the Penghu archipelago, Green Island, Xiaoliuqiu Island and ... Page:t85

Not to be confused with Taiwan, the country officially known as the Republic of China.
This article is about an administrative province of the Republic of China. For the hypothetical province claimed by the People's Republic of China, see Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China.
Taiwan Province
臺灣省
Streamlined Province
Taiwan Province of the Republic of China (in red).
Taiwan Province of the Republic of China (in red).
CountryRepublic of China
EstablishedOctober 25, 1945 (Retrocession Day)
StreamlinedDecember 21, 1998
Provincial capitalTaipei (1945-1956)
Zhongxing New Village (1956-)
Government
 • ChairpersonHsu Jan-yau
Area
 • Total25,110.0037 km (9,695.0266 sq mi)
Population (2014)
 • Total7,182,952
 • Density290/km (740/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Taiwanese
Time zoneAsia/Taipei (UTC+8)
Postal codes200–206, 260–369, 500–655, 880–885, 900–983
Area codes(0)2, (0)3, (0)4, (0)5, (0)6, (0)8
ISO 3166 codeTW
Counties11
Cities3
Websitewww.TPG.gov.tw
Taiwan Province
Traditional Chinese臺灣省 or 台灣省
Simplified Chinese台湾省
PostalTaiwan
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiwān Shěng
Tongyong PinyinTáiwan Shěng
Wade–GilesT'ai²-wan¹ Sheng³
Gwoyeu RomatzyhTair'uan Sheeng
MPS2Táiwān Shěng
Bopomofoㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ ㄕㄥˇ
Hakka
RomanizationThòi-vàn Sén
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTâi-oân-séng
Tâi-lôTâi-uân Síng
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDài-uăng Sēng

Taiwan Province (Chinese: 臺灣省; pinyin: Táiwān Shěng) is one of the two administrative divisions of the Republic of China (ROC) that are officially referred to as "provinces". The province covers approximately 69% of the actual-controlled territory of the ROC, with around 31% of the total population.

Geographically it covers the majority of the island of Taiwan as well as almost all of its surrounding islands, the largest of which are the Penghu archipelago, Green Island, Xiaoliuqiu Island and Orchid Island. Taiwan Province does not cover territories of the special municipalities of Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, and Taoyuan, all of which are located geographically within the main island of Taiwan. It also does not include the counties of Kinmen and Lienchiang, which are located alongside the southeast coast of mainland China and administered as a separate Fujian Province (not to be confused with the PRC's Fujian Province).

Originally Taiwan Province covered the entire island of Taiwan and all its associated islands. All the special municipalities were split off from the province between 1967 and 2014. Since 1997 most of the Taiwan provincial government's functions have been transferred to the central government of the Republic of China following a constitutional amendment. The Taiwan Provincial Government has effectively become a nominal institution under the Executive Yuan's administration.

The People's Republic of China (PRC) regards itself as the "successor state" of the Republic of China (ROC), which the PRC claims no longer legitimately exists, following establishment of the PRC in mainland China. The PRC asserts itself to be the sole legitimate government of China, and claims Taiwan as its 23rd province, even though the PRC itself has never had control of Taiwan or other ROC-held territories. The ROC disputes this position, maintaining that it still legitimately exists and that the PRC has not succeeded it to sovereignty.

History

Qing Dynasty

In 1683, Zheng Keshuang (third ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning and a grandson of Koxinga), surrendered to the Qing following a naval engagement with Admiral Shi Lang. The Qing then ruled the Taiwanese archipelago (including Penghu) as Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian Province. In 1875, Taipeh Prefecture was separated from Taiwan Prefecture. In 1885, work commenced under the auspices of Liu Ming-chuan to develop Taiwan into a province. In 1887, the island was declared an independent "Taiwan Province" (officially '''Fujian-Taiwan Province''' (zh)), with Liu as the first governor. The province was also reorganized into four prefectures, eleven districts, and three sub-prefectures. The provincial capital, or "Taiwan-fu", was intended to be moved from the south (modern-day Tainan) to the more central area of Toatun (modern-day Taichung) in the revamped Taiwan Prefecture. As the new central Taiwan-fu was still under construction, the capital was temporarily moved north to Taipeh (modern-day Taipei), which eventually was designated the provincial capital.

Divisions of Taiwan Province
CircuitPrefecturesDistrictsSub-Prefectures
TaiwanTaipehTamsuiKelung
Gilan
Hsinchu
TaiwanTaiwan (臺灣縣)
ChanghuaPuli
Yunlin
Miaoli
TainanAnpingPenghu
Kagi
Fengshan
Hengchun
Taitung

Empire of Japan

In 1895, the entire Taiwan Province, including Penghu, was ceded to Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War through the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Under Japanese rule, the province was abolished in favour of Japanese-style divisions. After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Taiwan was handed over to the Republic of China (ROC). The way that the ROC obtained Taiwan is a subject of controversy that gave root to the complex unresolved political status of Taiwan and the Taiwan independence movement.

Republic of China

The ROC government immediately established the Taiwan Provincial Government under first Chief Executive and government-general Chen Yi in September 1945. Chen was extremely unpopular and his rule led to an uprising - the February 28 Incident. Chen was recalled in May 1947 and the government-general position was abolished.

When the Republic of China government was relocated to Taipei in 1949 as a result of the Kuomintang's (KMT) defeat by the Chinese Communist Party forces in the Chinese Civil War, the provincial administration remained in place under the claim that the ROC was still the government of all of China even though the opposition argued that it overlapped inefficiently with the national government.

The building of the Taiwan Provincial Government at Zhongxing New Village

The seat of the provincial government was moved from Taipei to Zhongxing New Village in 1956. Historically, Taiwan Province covers the entire island of Taiwan and all its associated islands. The city of Taipei was split off to become a province-level special municipality in 1967, and the city of Kaohsiung was split off in 1979 to become another special municipality. In December 2010, Kaohsiung County left the province and merged with the original Kaohsiung City to become an expanded Kaohsiung City, Taipei County became the special municipality named New Taipei City. The cities and counties of Taichung and Tainan were also merged, respectively, and elevated to special municipality. On 25 December 2014, Taoyuan County was upgraded into a special municipality and split off from Taiwan Province.

Until 1992, the governor of Taiwan province was appointed by the ROC central government. The office was often a stepping stone to higher office.

In 1992, the post of the governor of the province was opened to election. The then-opposition Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) agreed to retain the province with an elected governor in the hopes of creating a "Yeltsin effect" in which a popular local leader could overwhelm the national government. These hopes proved unfulfilled as then-Kuomintang member James Soong was elected governor of the Taiwan province by a wide margin, defeating the DPP candidate Chen Ding-nan.

In 1997, as the result of an agreement between the KMT and the DPP, the administration of the province was streamlined and curtailed by constitutional changes. For example, the post of provincial governor and the provincial assembly were both abolished and replaced with a nine-member special council. Although the stated purpose was administrative efficiency, Soong and his supporters claim that it was actually intended to destroy James Soong's power base and eliminate him from political life, though it did not have this effect. In addition, the provincial legislature was abolished, while the Legislative Yuan was expanded to include some of the former provincial legislators.

Prior to January 1, 2007 all vehicles registered in Taiwan Province carried the label "Taiwan Province" (台灣省) on their license plates.

The provincial administration has been greatly streamlined in 1998, and handed most of its power to the central government. The counties and provincial cities under the province then became the primary administrative divisions in the country. In contrast to the past where the head of Taiwan province was considered a major official, the Governor of the Taiwan Provincial Government after 1999 has been considered a very minor position.

Government

Main article: Taiwan Provincial Government

Since the streamlining of the Taiwan Provincial Government in 1998, the government has been headed by a provincial council of nine members, led by the provincial governor. The members of the Provincial Council are all appointed by the president. The major operations of the provincial government, such as managing provincial highways and the Bank of Taiwan, have been transferred to the Executive Yuan.

Divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
Main article: List of administrative divisions of Taiwan

Taiwan Province is divided into 11 counties (縣 xiàn)      and 3 provincial cities (市 shì)     :

MapNo.NameMandarin
(Pinyin)
Taiwanese
(Pe̍h-ōe-jī)
Hakka
(Pha̍k-fa-sṳ)
Subdivision types of the Republic of China (2014).svg
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
1Changhua County彰化縣Zhānghuà xiànChiong-hoà koānChông-fa yen
2Chiayi City嘉義市Jiāyì shìKa-gī chhīKâ-ngi sṳ
3Chiayi County嘉義縣Jiāyì xiànKa-gī koānKâ-ngi yen
4Hsinchu City新竹市Xīnzhú shìSin-tek chhīSîn-tsuk yen
5Hsinchu County新竹縣Xīnzhú xiànSin-tek koānSîn-tsuk sṳ
6Hualien County花蓮縣Huālián xiànHoa-liân koānFâ-lièn yen
7Keelung City基隆市Jīlóng shìKe-lâng chhīKî-lùng sṳ
8Miaoli County苗栗縣Miáolì xiànBiâu-le̍k koānMèu-li̍t yen
9Nantou County南投縣Nántóu xiànLâm-tâu koānNàm-thèu yen
10Penghu County澎湖縣Pénghú xiànPhêⁿ-ô͘ koānPhàng-fù yen
11Pingtung County屏東縣Píngdōng xiànPîn-tong koānPhìn-tûng yen
12Taitung County臺東縣Táidōng xiànTâi-tang koānThòi-tûng yen
13Yilan County宜蘭縣Yílán xiànGî-lân koānNgì-làn yen
14Yunlin County雲林縣Yúnlín xiànHûn-lîm koānYùn-lìm yen

Note: The cities of Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei and Taoyuan are administered directly by the central government and are not part of Taiwan province. The Senkaku Islands, which are currently administered by Japan, are disputed by both the ROC and PRC, which claim them as the Tiaoyutai/Diaoyutai Islands. The ROC government claims them as part of Toucheng Township, Yilan County.

Administrative history

Decisions by the Executive Yuan since 1945:

DateDivision No.Notes
CountiesCities
December 25, 194589
  • Counties: Hsinchu, Hualien, Kaohsiung, Penghu, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, and Taitung.
  • Provincial Cities: Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Keelung, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, and Taipei.
(with 2 county-controlled cities: Hualien and Yilan)
August 16, 1950168
  • Counties: Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Hualien, Kaohsiung, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, Taitung, Taoyuan, Yilan, and Yunlin
  • Provincial Cities: Changhua, Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Keelung, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, and Taipei.
(downgrade Chiayi to a county-controlled city)
December 1, 1951165Downgrade Changhua, Hsinchu, and Pingtung provincial cities to county-controlled cities
July 1, 1967164Taipei became the first Taiwanese special municipality
November 11, 1967164All county seats (originally towns) upgraded to county-controlled cities.
July 1, 1979163Kaohsiung became the second Taiwanese special municipality
July 1, 1982165Upgrade Chiayi and Hsinchu to provincial cities (approved on April 23, 1981)
December 25, 2010123Upgrade Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan to special municipalities, which covers four counties (Kaohsiung, Taipei, Taichung, Tainan) and two provincial cities (Taichung and Tainan).
December 25, 2014113Upgrade Taoyuan to special municipality.

Governor of the Province

Official titles of the governor

YearFull titleLiterallyNotes
ChineseMandarin
(Pinyin)
Taiwanese
(Pe̍h-ōe-jī)
1945–1947臺灣省
行政長官
Táiwānshěng
Xíngzhèng
Zhǎngguān
Tâi-oân-séng
Hêng-chèng
Tióng-Kuaⁿ
Chief Executive of
Taiwan Province
The position of Chief Executive was temporarily part of the Executive Yuan, the position was legalized in Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office Organizational Outline (臺灣省行政長官公署組織條例 Táiwān-shěng xíngzhèng zhǎngguān gōngshǔ zǔzhī tiáolì) of September 20, 1945.
1947–1994臺灣省政府
主席
Táiwānshěng
Zhèngfǔ Zhǔxí
Tâi-oân-séng
Chèng-hú Chú-se̍k
Chairman of Taiwan
Provincial Government
After the February 28 Incident, the Administrative Executive Office was reformed to a provincial government. The title often abbreviate as 省主席 shěngzhǔxí.
1994–1998臺灣省
省長
Táiwānshěng
Shěngzhǎng
Tâi-oân-séng
Séng-tiúⁿ
Governor of
Taiwan Province
During the democratic reforms, the title "Governor" was first legally used in the Self-Governance Law for Provinces and Counties (省縣自治法) of July 29, 1994. The governor was directly elected by the people of the province.
1998–present臺灣省政府
主席
Táiwānshěng
Zhèngfǔ Zhǔxí
Tâi-oân-séng
Chèng-hú Chú-se̍k
Chairman of Taiwan
Provincial Government
Since the streamlining of the Taiwan Provincial Government in 1998, the government has been headed by a provincial council of nine members, led by the provincial governor. The members of the Provincial Council are all appointed by the president. The major operations of the provincial government, such as managing provincial highways and the Bank of Taiwan, have been transferred to the Executive Yuan.

List of Governors

  Kuomintang   Non-partisan/ unknown   Democratic Progressive Party

Chief Executive

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical Party
1Chen Yi.jpgChen Yi
陳儀
Chén Yí
(1883-1950)
August 29, 1945April 22, 1947Kuomintang

Chairperson of the Provincial Government

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical Party
1Wei Daoming.jpgWei Tao-ming
魏道明
Wèi Dàomíng
(1899-1978)
May 16, 1947January 5, 1949Kuomintang
2Chen Cheng
陳誠
Chén Chéng
(1897–1965)
January 5, 1949December 21, 1949Kuomintang
3K. C. Wu.jpgK. C. Wu
吳國楨
Wú Guózhēn
(1903–1984)
December 21, 1949April 16, 1953Kuomintang
4O. K. Yui
俞鴻鈞
Yú Hóngjūn
(1897–1960)
April 16, 1953June 7, 1954Kuomintang
5Yen Chia-kan 1965.jpgYen Chia-kan
(C.K. Yen)

嚴家淦
Yán Jiāgàn
(1905–1993)
June 7, 1954August 16, 1957Kuomintang
6Zhou Zhirou.jpgChow Chih-jou (zh)
周至柔
Yán Jiāgàn
(1899–1986)
August 16, 1957December 1, 1962Kuomintang
7Huang Chieh
黃杰
Huáng Jié
(1902–1995)
December 1, 1962July 5, 1969Kuomintang
8Chen Ta-ching
陳大慶
Chén Dàqìng
(1904–1973)
July 5, 1969June 6, 1972Kuomintang
9Hsieh Tung Ming.jpgHsieh Tung-min
謝東閔
Xiè Dōngmǐn
(1908–2001)
June 6, 1972May 20, 1978Kuomintang
Chu Shao-hwa (zh)
瞿韶華
Qú Sháohuá
(1914-1996)
May 20, 1978June 11, 1978Kuomintang
As acting; Secretary General of the Provincial Government.
10Lin Yang-kang
林洋港
Lín Yánggǎng
(1927–2013)
June 12, 1978December 5, 1981Kuomintang
11Lee Teng-hui 2004 cropped.jpgLee Teng-hui
李登輝
Lǐ Dēnghuī
(1923–)
December 5, 1981May 20, 1984Kuomintang
Liu Chao-tien
劉兆田
Liú Zhàotián
May 20, 1984June 8, 1984Kuomintang
As acting; Secretary General of the Provincial Government.
12Encyclopedia of Law by Sanmin Books Chuang-huan Chiu.jpgChiu Chuang-huan
邱創煥
Qīu Chuànghuàn
(1925–)
June 9, 1984June 16, 1990Kuomintang
132005KMT NanjingTour LienChan.jpgLien Chan
連戰
Lián Zhàn
(1936–)
June 16, 1990February 25, 1993Kuomintang
Tu Teh-chi
凃德錡
Tú Déqí
February 27, 1993March 19, 1993Kuomintang
As acting; Secretary General of the Provincial Government.
14James Soong cropped.pngJames Soong
宋楚瑜
Sòng Chǔyú
(1942–)
March 20, 1993December 20, 1994Kuomintang

Governor

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical Party
1James Soong cropped.pngJames Soong
宋楚瑜
Sòng Chǔyú
(1942–)
December 20, 1994December 21, 1998Kuomintang

Chairperson of the Provincial Government

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical Party
152008TIBE Day5 Hall1 ActivityCenter1 Shou-po Chao.jpgChao Shou-po
趙守博
Sòng Chǔyú
(1941–)
December 21, 1998May 2, 2000Kuomintang
Chiang Ching-hsien
江清馦
Jiāng Qīngxiān
May 2, 2000May 19, 2000Independent
As acting; Secretary General of the Provincial Government.
16Chang Po-ya
張博雅
Zhāng Bóyă
(1942-)
May 20, 2000February 1, 2002Independent
First female chairperson. Concurrently held post of Minister of the Interior.
17Fan Kuang-chun
范光群
Fàn Guāngqún
(1939–)
February 1, 2002October 7, 2003Democratic Progressive Party
18Lin Kuang-hua
林光華
Lín Guānghuá
(1945-)
October 13, 2003January 25, 2006Democratic Progressive Party
Jeng Peir-fuh (zh)
鄭培富
Zhèng Péifù
January 25, 2006December 7, 2007Independent
As acting; Secretary General of the Provincial Government.
19Lin Hsi-yao.jpgLin Hsi-yao
林錫耀
Lín Xíyào
(1961–)
December 7, 2007May 19, 2008Democratic Progressive Party
Concurrently held post of Minister Without Portfolio.
20Tsai Hsun-hsiung
蔡勳雄
Cài Xūnxióng
(1941–)
May 20, 2008September 10, 2009Kuomintang
Concurrently held post of Minister Without Portfolio.
212008 WiMAX Expo Taipei Executive Yuan Chin-fu Chang.jpgChang Jin-fu
張進福
Zhāng Jìnfú
(1948–)
September 10, 2009February 26, 2010Independent
Concurrently held post of Minister Without Portfolio.
22Lin Junq-tzer.jpgLin Junq-tzer
林政則
Lín Zhèngzé
(1944-)
February 26, 2010May 20, 2016Kuomintang
Concurrently held post of Minister Without Portfolio.
23Shih Jun-ji
施俊吉
Shī Jùnjí
(1955–)
May 20, 2016June 30, 2016
Concurrently held post of Minister Without Portfolio. Shortest serving chairperson.
24Hsu Jan-yau
許璋瑤

(1951–)
July 1, 2016Incumbent
Concurrently held post of Minister Without Portfolio.

PRC's claims

Main articles: Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China and Two Chinas

The PRC claims the entirety of the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including the Penghu, as parts of its Taiwan Province, corresponding to the ROC's Taiwan Province before the special municipalities were split off. The PRC claims that Taiwan is part of China, that the PRC succeeded the ROC as the sole legitimate authority in all of China upon its founding in 1949, and that therefore Taiwan is part of the PRC.

Sister States/Provinces

  • Ohio Ohio, United States (1985)
  • Florida Florida, United States (1992)
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