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Ministry of War of Japan

Ministry of War of JapanDescription : The Army Ministry of Japan (陸軍省, Rikugun-shō), more popularly known as the Ministry of War of Japan, was the cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). It existed from 1872 to 1945.The Army Ministry was created in April 1872, along with the Navy Ministry, to replace the Ministry of the Military (兵部省, Hyōbushō) of the early Meiji government.Initially, the Army Ministry was in charge of both administration and opera... Page:m

HQ building of the Imperial Japanese Army, Tokyo, from 1937–1945

The Army Ministry of Japan (陸軍省, Rikugun-shō), more popularly known as the Ministry of War of Japan, was the cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). It existed from 1872 to 1945.

History

The Army Ministry was created in April 1872, along with the Navy Ministry, to replace the Ministry of the Military (兵部省, Hyōbushō) of the early Meiji government.

Initially, the Army Ministry was in charge of both administration and operational command of the Imperial Japanese Army. However, with the creation of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in December 1878, it was left with only administrative functions. Its primary role was to secure the army budget, weapons procurement, personnel, relations with the Diet of Japan and the Cabinet and broad matters of military policy.

The post of Army Minister was politically powerful. Although a member of the Cabinet after the establishment of the cabinet system of government in 1885, the Army Minister was answerable directly to the Emperor (the commander-in-chief of all Japanese armed forces under the Meiji Constitution) and not the Prime Minister.

From the time of its creation, the post of Army Minister was usually filled by an active-duty general in the Imperial Japanese Army. This practice was made into law under the "Military Ministers to be Active-Duty Officers Law" (軍部大臣現役武官制, Gumbu daijin gen'eki bukan sei) in 1900 by Prime Minister Yamagata Aritomo to curb the influence of political parties into military affairs. Abolished in 1913 under the administration of Yamamoto Gonnohyōe, the law was revived again in 1936 at the insistence of the Army General Staff by Prime Minister Hirota Kōki. At the same time, the Imperial Japanese Army prohibited its generals from accepting political offices except by permission from the Army high command. Taken together, these arrangements gave the Imperial Japanese Army an effective, legal right to nominate (or refuse to nominate) the Army Minister. The ability of the Imperial Japanese Army to refuse to nominate an Army Minister gave it effective veto power over the formation (or continuation) of any civilian administration, and was a key factor in the erosion of representative democracy and the rise of Japanese militarism.

After 1937, both the Army Minister and the Chief of the Army General Staff were members of the Imperial General Headquarters.

With the defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II, the Army Ministry was abolished together with the Imperial Japanese Army by the American occupation authorities in November 1945 and was not revived in the post-war Constitution of Japan.

Organization

  • Under-Secretary of the Army (Vice Minister)
    • Military Affairs Bureau
    • Personnel Bureau
    • Weapons Bureau
    • Army Service Bureau
    • Administration Bureau
    • Intendance (Accounts and Supply)
    • Medical
    • Judicial Bureau
    • Economic Mobilization Bureau
    • Aeronautical Department
    • Economic Mobilization (abolished in April 1945)

The Army Ministry and Imperial General Headquarters were located in Ichigaya Heights, which is now part of Shinjuku, Tokyo.

Imperial Japanese Military
Empire of Japan
Administration
Imperial General Headquarters
Components
 Imperial Japanese Army
(Dai Nippon Teikoku Rikugun)
        Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
        Railways and Shipping Section
    Uniforms
 Imperial Japanese Navy
(Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun)
        Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
        Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces
    Major battles
    List of ships
    List of aircraft
    Main admirals
Rank insignia
Army rank insignia
Naval rank insignia
History of the Japanese Military
Military History of Japan during World War II

Ministers of Army of Japan

NameCabinetFromTo
1Ōyama Iwao1st Itō22 December 188530 April 1888
2Ōyama IwaoKuroda30 April 188824 December 1889
3Ōyama Iwao1st Yamagata24 December 18896 May 1891
4Ōyama Iwao1st Matsukata6 May 189117 May 1891
5Takashima Tomonosuke1st Matsukata17 May 18918 August 1892
6Ōyama Iwao2nd Itō8 August 189218 September 1896
7Ōyama Iwao2nd Matsukata18 September 189620 September 1896
8Takashima Tomonosuke2nd Matsukata20 September 189612 January 1898
9Katsura Tarō3rd Itō12 January 189830 June 1898
10Katsura Tarō1st Ōkuma30 June 18988 November 1898
11Katsura Tarō2nd Yamagata8 November 189819 October 1900
12Katsura Tarō4th Itō19 October 190023 December 1900
13Kodama Gentarō4th Itō23 December 19002 June 1901
14Kodama Gentarō1st Katsura2 June 190127 March 1902
15Terauchi Masatake1st Katsura27 March 19027 January 1906
16Terauchi Masatake1st Saionji7 January 190614 July 1908
17Terauchi Masatake2nd Katsura14 July 190830 August 1911
18Ishimoto Shinroku2nd Saionji30 August 19112 April 1912
19Uehara Yūsaku2nd Saionji5 April 191221 December 1912
20Kigoshi Yasutsuna3rd Katsura21 December 191220 February 1913
21Kigoshi Yasutsuna1st Yamamoto20 February 191324 June 1913
22Kusunose Yukihiko1st Yamamoto24 June 191316 April 1914
23Oka Ichinosuke2nd Ōkuma16 April 191430 March 1916
24Ōshima Ken'ichi2nd Ōkuma30 March 19169 October 1916
25Ōshima Ken'ichiTerauchi9 October 191629 September 1918
26Tanaka GiichiHara29 September 19189 June 1921
27Yamanashi HanzōHara9 June 192113 November 1921
28Yamanashi HanzōTakahashi13 November 192112 June 1922
29Yamanashi HanzōKatō12 June 19222 September 1923
30Tanaka Giichi2nd Yamamoto2 September 19237 January 1924
31Ugaki KazushigeKiyoura7 January 192411 June 1924
32Ugaki KazushigeKatō11 June 192430 January 1926
33Ugaki Kazushige1st Wakatsuki30 January 192620 April 1927
34Shirakawa Yoshinori1st Tanaka20 April 19272 July 1929
35Ugaki KazushigeHamaguchi2 July 192914 April 1931
36Minami Jirō2nd Wakatsuki14 April 193113 December 1931
37Araki SadaoInukai13 December 193126 May 1932
38Araki SadaoSaitō26 May 193223 January 1934
39Hayashi SenjūrōSaitō23 January 19348 July 1934
40Hayashi SenjūrōOkada8 July 19345 September 1935
41Kawashima YoshiyukiOkada5 September 19359 March 1936
42Terauchi HisaichiHirota9 March 19362 February 1937
43Nakamura KōtarōHayashi2 February 19379 February 1937
44Sugiyama HajimeHayashi9 February 19374 June 1937
45Sugiyama Hajime1st Konoe4 June 19373 June 1938
46Itagaki Seishirō1st Konoe3 June 19375 January 1939
47Itagaki Seishirō1st Hiranuma5 January 193930 August 1939
48Hata ShunrokuAbe30 August 193916 January 1940
49Hata ShunrokuYonai16 January 194022 July 1940
50Tōjō Hideki2nd Konoe22 July 194018 July 1941
51Tōjō Hideki3rd Konoe18 July 194118 October 1941
52Tōjō HidekiTojo18 October 194122 July 1944
53Sugiyama HajimeKoiso22 July 19447 April 1945
54Anami KorechikaSuzuki7 April 194514 August 1945
55Higashikuni NaruhikoHigashikuni17 August 194523 August 1945
56Shimomura SadamuHigashikuni23 August 19459 October 1945
57Shimomura SadamuShidehara9 October 19451 December 1945
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