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Jean Pictet

Description : Jean Simon Pictet (born 2 September 1914 in Geneva, died 30 March 2002 in Meyrin) was a Swiss jurist, expert in international humanitarian law and senior staff member and Vice President of the International Committee of the Red Cross. He was the main architect of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I and Protocol II. He also proposed the Red Cross Movement’s seven Fundamental Principles, which were adopted at Vienna in 1965: Humanity, Impartiality, Neutrality, Independence, Vo... Page:j93


Jean Simon Pictet (born 2 September 1914 in Geneva, died 30 March 2002 in Meyrin) was a Swiss jurist, expert in international humanitarian law and senior staff member and Vice President of the International Committee of the Red Cross. He was the main architect of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I and Protocol II. He also proposed the Red Cross Movement’s seven Fundamental Principles, which were adopted at Vienna in 1965: Humanity, Impartiality, Neutrality, Independence, Voluntary Service, Unity and Universality. In 1989, an international humanitarian law competition for students was founded and named after him.

Life

After secondary education in Paris, Pictet completed his study of law at the University of Geneva, earning a doctorate in 1935 and then practiced law in Vienna and Geneva. In 1937 he began working as a legal assistant at the International Committee of the Red Cross. During the Second World War he wrote most of the ICRC's appeals on behalf of prisoners of wars and civilian victims of the war. and was one of the key staff of the Committee and worked directly with ICRC President Max Huber. Even before the war ended, he embarked on a project for a complete overhaul of the Geneva Conventions, in particular including the protection of civilians, despite Huber's pessimism about its prospects. 1946 he became Director in the Directorate and the ICRC. In 1966 he became Director General of the ICRC Directorate and thus held the highest office in the administration of the committee. From 1967 to 1979 he was a member of the ICRC (restricted to 25 Swiss citizens) and from 1971 to 1979 was the Vice President.

He was also responsible for directing the establishment of the general report on the work of the ICRC during the global conflict. He ran for the ICRC, the work and negotiations that led to the revision of the Regulations of the Red Cross International in 1952, and agreements with the League of Red Cross. He also chaired the conference of experts to prepare for the negotiation of the two Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1977.

The four volume commentary on the Conventions under his general editorship is in constant use by those applying the convention. His short 1955 volume Les Principes de la Croix-Rouge (Red Cross Principles) was a decisive step in formulating common principles of the different organizations of the Red Cross Movement, and led to the unanimous adoption by the 1965 XXth International Conference of the Red Cross in Vienna, of the seven Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross. He was also involved in drafting the statutes of the Movement.

Jean Pictet was appointed lecturer at the University of Geneva and Professor of International Humanitarian Law at the Faculty of Law and Associate Professor 1974 to 1979. He also lectured at the Academy of International Law (1950) and the International Institute of Human Rights (1971, 1972, 1982). From 1975 to 1981 he was director and president of the Henry Dunant Institute, research center, training and teaching of the International Red Cross.

Jean Pictet was the main author of the commentary on the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1977 completed two additional protocols. He has also published the 1948 "Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross on its activities during the Second World War (1 September 1939-30 June 1947)" and later presented with the basis for publications in 1965 adopted seven principles of the International Red Cross - and Rothalbmond movement. Among his other works include several works on international humanitarian law and about the Native Americans.

1950 he taught at the Hague Academy of International Law in The Hague. In the years 1971, 1972 and 1982 he held lectures at the International Institute for Human Rights, from 1974 to 1979 he was Professor of international humanitarian law at the Law Faculty of the University of Geneva. From 1975 to 1981 he worked as director and later president of the Henry Dunant Institute. [2]

In his later years, his Rousseauian faith in humanity declined, and he emphasized the necessity of legal compulsion. He wrote several books on the conquest of North America from the Indians.

Honours

Pictet received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Leiden, Zurich, and Leuven, as well as several awards from the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, including posthumously in 2005 the Henry Dunant Medal, the highest award of the movement. The bilingual, international Jean-Pictet Competition, which focuses on international humanitarian law, was named after him.

Works

  • Les principes de la Croix-Rouge. Geneva: ICRC. 1955. 
  • The Geneva conventions of 12 August 1949: commentary published under the general editorship of J.S. Pictet. Geneva: ICRC. 1960. 
  • Humanitarian law and the protection of war victims. Leyden: Sijthoff. 1975. ISBN 90-286-0305-0.  (Translation of Le droit humanitaire et la protection des victimes de la guerre.)
  • Development and Principles of International Humanitarian Law (Nijhoff Law Specials, 2). The Hague: Kluwer Law International. 1985. ISBN 90-247-3199-2. 
  • C. Swinarski (1985). Etudes et Essais sur le Droit International Humanitaire et sur les Principes de la Croix-Rouge en l'Honneur de Jean Pictet / Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honor of Jean Pictet. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. ISBN 90-247-3079-1. 
  • L'épopée des peaux-rouges. Lausanne: Favre. 1988. ISBN 2-8289-0354-0. 
  • La grande storia degli indiani d'America. Mondadori. 2000. ISBN 88-04-48399-7. 

Jean-Pictet Competition

The Jean-Pictet competition was founded in 1989 by Christophe Lanord and Michel Deyra. Originally, the competition was run only in French with four members in each team. In 1997, the competition was changed so that each team had three members. In 2000, an English-speaking round was introduced. From 2007 to 2009, a Spanish-speaking round was also included; however, this has since been discontinued.

Since 2000, nine of the Jean-Pictet champions have been teams from the English-speaking round, four have been from the French-speaking round. The Université Libre de Bruxelles has won the Jean-Pictet more than any other university, with four wins across 1989, 1998, 2006 and 2012. Three universities have won the Jean-Pictet Competition two years in a row: Barreau de Montréal in 1991 and 1992, Université catholique de Louvain in 2000 and 2001, and Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya in 2010 and 2011. In fact, there are more winners who have won two or more times than there are winners who have won only once. Universities from Belgium have won the Jean-Pictet Competition six times.

Table of Honours

YearLocationNumber of teamsFrench-speaking Round WinnersFrench-speaking Round FinalistsEnglish-speaking Round WinnersEnglish-speaking Round FinalistsGilbert Apollis Award WinnersJean Pictet ChampionChampion's Country
2016Évian-les-Bains, France48Université de Grenoble (France)Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium),
Panthéon-Assas University (France),
Université de Genève (Switzerland)
University of New South Wales (Australia)
and
Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel),
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Perú),
Columbia University (US),
Maastricht University (The Netherlands),
National Law School of India University (India),
Tel Aviv University (Israel)
Darren Ou Yong (University of New South Wales),
Aurélien Godefroy (Panthéon-Assas University),
Michal Shachar (Tel Aviv University)
Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humainsSwitzerland
2015Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America56Panthéon-Assas University (France)Aix-Marseille Université (France),
Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium),
Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada)
National University of Singapore (Singapore) and
Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland)
University of New South Wales (Australia),
Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel),
Georgetown University (USA),
United States Air Force Academy (USA),
Columbia University (USA),
University for Peace (Costa Rica),
American University Washington College of Law (USA),
University of Essex (UK)
Luciana Téllez Chávez (University for Peace),
Nima Abdollahzade (Shahid Beheshti University),
Guillemette Blanc (Aix-Marseille Université)
National University of SingaporeSingapore
2014Sintra, Grande Lisboa, Portugal48Université de Grenoble (France)Université Laval (Canada),
University of Neuchâtel (Switzerland),
Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada)
University of Virginia (USA) and
University of Essex (UK)
University of New South Wales (Australia),
New York University (USA),
Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel),
Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова (Russia),
University of Essex (UK),
United States Air Force Academy (USA),
National University of Singapore (Singapore)
Jamie Brown (University of Groningen),
Kosuke Onishi (Doshisha University),
Pierre Molard (University of Grenoble)
University of VirginiaUSA
2013Kanchanaburi, Thailand47University of Neuchâtel (Switzerland)Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada),
Université de Liège (Belgium),
Panthéon-Assas University (France)
Santa Clara University (USA) and
University of New South Wales (Australia)
New York University (USA),
American University Washington College of Law (USA),
University of Essex (UK),
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Ecuador),
National University of Singapore (Singapore),
Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Julie Carlesso (Université de Montréal),
Tim Clark (University of New South Wales),
Matias Gonzalez Mama (Universidad de Buenos Aires)
University of New South WalesAustralia
2012Winterton / Drakensberg, South Africa47Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada),
Université de Caen (France),
Université de Liège (Belgium)
National University of Singapore (Singapore) and
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Perú)
Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland),
University of the Philippines (Philippines),
University of Essex (UK),
Maastricht University (Netherlands),
Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya (Israel),
Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)
Augustin Denous (Université de Caen),
Paulo Dutra (United States Air Force Academy),
Giovanna Quiroz Guerra (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Perú)
Université Libre de BruxellesBelgium
2011Najac, France48Université de Lomé (Togo)Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina),
Université de Montréal (Canada),
Panthéon-Assas University (France)
Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland) and
Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya (Israel)
New York University (USA),
Utrecht University (Netherlands),
University of Essex (UK),
University of Athens (Greece),
University of Michigan (USA),
University of the Philippines (Philippines)
Etienne Quillet (Panthéon-Assas University),
Levan Asatiani (Tbilisi State University),
Halim Shebaya (University of Nottingham)
Interdisciplinary Center, HerzliyaIsrael
2010Orford, Canada45Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada),
Université de Montréal (Canada),
Université de Liège (Belgium),
Université Paris-Sud XI (France)
Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya (Israel),
New York University (USA)
Jeremy Etkind (University of New South Wales)Interdisciplinary Center, HerzliyaIsrael
2009Évian-les Bains, France55Université de Caen (France);
Spanish-speaking Round: Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada),
Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland)
University of Essex (UK) and
National University of Singapore (Singapore)
Maëlle Audoin (Université de Caen),
Zoe Richards (Pakistan - National Team),
Samuel Njoroge Njeri (University of Nairobi),
Dalila Bettina Seoane (Universidad de Buenos Aires)
Université de CaenFrance
2008Schwarzenburg, Switzerland56Université de Liège (Belgium);
Spanish-speaking Round: Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil) and
University of Nairobi (Kenya)
Manon Ballestero (Université Libre de Bruxelles),
Diego Valadares (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais),
Ben Winks (University of Johannesburg),
Teresita Segovia (Universidad Iberoamericana)
Universidade Federal de Minas GeraisBrazil
2007El Escorial, Spain56Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) and
University of Lausanne (Switzerland);
Spanish-speaking Round: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Peru)
National University of Singapore (Singapore),
University of New South Wales (Australia),
University of Cape Town (South Africa),
Inn's of Court School of Law (UK)
Victor Augusto Saco (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú),
Matei Purice (Université de Bucarest),
Renu Rajan Menon (National University of Singapore),
Shingira Samantha Masanzu (University of Cape Town)
University of New South WalesAustralia
2006Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia and Montenegro47Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)National University of Singapore (Singapore),
Universities of the Eastern Cape (South Africa)
Raphael Mahaim (Université de Lausanne),
Phoebe Knowles (London School of Economics),
Natalie Morris (New York University)
Université Libre de BruxellesBelgium
2005London School of EconomicsUnited Kingdom
2004University of CambridgeUnited Kingdom
2003University of New South WalesAustralia
2002Université de FribourgSwitzerland
2001Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenBelgium
2000French round: Sainte-Maxime, France
English round: Mariefred, Sweden
International Grand Final: Geneva, Switzerland
38Université de Fribourg (Switzerland),
École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr (France)
Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada),
United States Air Force Academy (USA),
Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium),
Aix-Marseille III (France)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium),
New York University (USA)
University of Essex (UK),
Uppsala University (Sweden)
Nadine L. C. Thwaites (Université Libre de Bruxelles),
Tinneke Baeyens (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenBelgium
YearLocationNumber of teamsGrand FinalistsSemi-FinalistsGilbert Apollis Award WinnersJean Pictet ChampionChampion's Country
1999Goúves, Heraklion, Crete, Greece24Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium),
Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina),
Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
The English-speaking round was introduced in 2000.Tom Thomas (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)Université de FribourgSwitzerland
1998Qawra, Malta23Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales (Switzerland)Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada),
Université d'Auvergne (France),
University of Western Ontario (Canada),
University of Essex (UK)
Christophe Menu (Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales)Université Libre de BruxellesBelgium
1997Cascais, Lisbon, Portugal23University of Essex (UK)Institut Universitaire de Hautes Études Internationales (Switzerland),
McGill University (Canada),
Barreau de Sherbrooke (Canada),
?
Céline Pouilly (Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales)Université d'AuvergneFrance
1996Geneva, Switzerland16Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales (Switzerland)Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal),
Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (France),
Barreau de Sherbrooke (Canada),
Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
Dominique Ménard (Barreau de Sherbrooke)Université du Québec à MontréalCanada
1995Paris, France15University of Essex (UK)Université d'Auvergne (France),
Barreau de Québec (Canada),
Université du Québec à Montréal (Canada),
Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
Alexandre Dalmau (Université du Québec à Montréal)Institut universitaire de hautes études internationalesSwitzerland
1994Montréal, Québec, Canada19Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (France)Aix-Marseille III (France),
Université d'Auvergne (France),
Barreau de Sherbrooke (Canada),
Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales (Switzerland)
Stéphane Dubreuil (Barreau de Sherbrooke)Collège militaire royal du CanadaCanada
1993Clermont-Ferrand, France10Université de Montréal (Canada)Aix-Marseille III (France),
Barreau de Québec (Canada)
Catherine Bohémier (Université de Montréal)Essex UniversityUnited Kingdom
1992Brussels, Belgium10Aix-Marseille III (France)University of Berlin (Germany),
Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
Daphné Cousineau (Barreau de Montréal)Barreau de MontréalCanada
1991Geneva, Switzerland8Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)Aix-Marseille III (France),
University of Essex (UK)
Valérie Jochmans (Université Libre de Bruxelles)Barreau de MontréalCanada
1990Montpellier, France9Université de Neuchâtel (France)Olivier Raluy (Université d'Auvergne)Aix-Marseille IIIFrance
1989Clermont-Ferrand, France4Université de Fribourg (Switzerland)Christian Linsi (Université de Fribourg)Université Libre de BruxellesBelgium
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